In 2015, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimated the number of refugees in the world to be hundreds of millions. Their causes of war, disasters and political persecution vary, and wars and armed conflicts have been at the forefront of asylum throughout the world.
Where former Europe in the 1930s saw waves of refuge for Jews from Germany and Austria because of the Nazi persecution of them, and after the catastrophe of 1948 displaced the Palestinian people, the long paths of asylum.
And war in Iraq in 2003 prompted millions of Iraqis to seek asylum in neighboring countries, Europe and the United States. In 2011, millions of Syrians were expelled from their country because of repression and war. They sped over to Europe with many refugees of different nationalities, after The World War II.
The concept of “asylum” was common during the first centuries of Christian history, especially in the fourth century AD, which witnessed a major boom in its cases, with the frequency of people resorting to the churches for protection from the Roman Empire.
Islamic history also preserves the migration to Abyssinia as the first collective asylum process driven by Muslims fleeing their religion from the oppression of the Quraish leaders in Mecca.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) provides for the granting of “the right of asylum”, and obliges the states granting it protection to the refugee. Three years later (1951), the Geneva Convention defines the “right of asylum” as “refugee” “It consists of 46 articles.
The treaty provides for the exclusion of the consequent consequences of the crimes of the general right, since the protection resulting from obtaining the asylum does not include only the dangers and follow-up resulting from a political, racial, religious or other background.
The Universal Declaration also states the right of everyone to freedom of movement and residence in his or her country or any other country, and provides for the right to protection and asylum if persecuted.
International refugees and asylum-seekers are entitled to asylum on grounds of fear or expectation that the person concerned will be persecuted only if an armed conflict is taking place in his or her country that could endanger him or her if he returns. , And this type of asylum is usually called “humanitarian asylum”.
The refugee persecuted or threatened with death because of his or her political positions or rights struggle for freedom and democracy in his country. In this case, the refugee is described as the “political refugee”, the most common type of asylum, especially among third-world nationals where tyranny prevails and freedoms are confiscated And political repression.
The granting of the status of “political refugee” does not require a holder of precedents in the human rights or political struggle for freedoms, pluralism and difference, and sometimes gives writers and thinkers protection against oppression because of their ideas and convictions.
Where the refugee has the right of residence and therefore provides him with a source of income to live, and here the local legislation varies between the authorization of the right to work and grant the grant of financial grant with housing and education. Such procedures usually include asylum seekers.
The “political refugee” is sometimes constrained from work, as is the reservation to any political or human rights exercise that may cause tension in the country of asylum in the country of origin or harm the national security of the latter.
International conventions oblige the receiving country not to deport refugees to their country or to any country where they may lose their lives or be persecuted, whether because of their views and beliefs or because of disturbances and acts of violence in the country concerned.
The 139 countries worldwide that signed the 1951 Convention are bound to implement their provisions. Including those that have not signed the Convention and are bound to uphold the fundamental protection standards that are part of general international law.
Human rights always invoke a number of asylum situations at the global level, especially the humanitarian aspect, on the one hand, and the failure of the international community, including the United Nations and a number of international and humanitarian bodies and organizations, to provide mechanisms for the protection of refugees and to defend their lives and rights in accordance with international humanitarian law. Time of war or peace.
While some countries are taking the necessary measures to protect refugees, many countries still fail to adopt international mechanisms, and some of their actions do harm to refugees, including some Arab countries that have not yet signed the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 annex, which Needs to be remedied to alleviate human suffering and to put international standards into practice, although this is consistent with our tolerant religious principles and values.
It is not enough to recall human suffering. Rather, international mechanisms must be developed to conform to the principles of protection provided by the rules of international humanitarian law.
And remind everyone that asylum is right not a gift!